Children, like adults also suffer from depression, although their symptoms may not be the same. Additionally, children respond well to treatment. Depression is defined as an illness when the feelings of depression persist and interfere with a child or adolescent’s ability to function.
About 5 percent of children and adolescents in the general population suffer from depression at any given point in time. Children under stress, who experience loss, or who have attention problems, learning, conduct or anxiety disorders are at a higher risk for depression. Depression also tends to run in families.
The behavior of depressed children and teenagers may differ from the behavior of depressed adults. Child and adolescent psychiatrists advise parents to be aware of signs of depression in their youngsters.
Signs of depression in children. If one or more of these signs of depression persist, parents should seek help:
- Frequent sadness, tearfulness, crying.
- Decreased interest in activities; or inability to enjoy previously favorite activities.
- Persistent boredom; low energy.
- Social isolation, poor communication.
- Low self esteem and guilt.
- Extreme sensitivity to rejection or failure.
- Increased irritability, anger, or hostility.
- Difficulty with relationships.
- Frequent complaints of physical illnesses such as headaches and stomachaches.
- Frequent absences from school or poor performance in school.
- Poor concentration.
- A major change in eating and/or sleeping patterns.
- Talk of or efforts to run away from home.
- Thoughts or expressions of suicide or self destructive behavior.
A child who used to play often with friends may now spend most of the time alone and without interests. Things that were once fun now bring little joy to the depressed child. Children and adolescents who are depressed may say they want to be dead or may talk about suicide. Depressed children and adolescents are at increased risk for committing suicide. Depressed adolescents may abuse alcohol or other drugs as a way to feel better.
Children and adolescents who cause trouble at home or at school may also be suffering from depression. Because the youngster may not always seem sad, parents and teachers may not realize that troublesome behavior is a sign of depression. When asked directly, these children can sometimes state they are unhappy or sad.
(This information has been made available from the Los Angeles Network of Care)
Some Consequences of Depression
- Once a young person has experienced an episode of depression, he or she is at risk for developing another episode of depression within the next 5 years (Center for Mental Health Services).
- Depression in childhood may predict more severe depressive illness in adulthood (National Institute of Mental Health).
- Depression in children and adolescents is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behaviors (National Institute of Mental Health).
What can Parents/Caregivers Do?
If parents or other adults in a young person’s life suspect a problem with depression, they should:
- Know the warning signs of depression and note how long problems have been going on, how often they occur, and how severe they seem.
- See a mental health professional or the child’s doctor for evaluation and diagnosis.
- Get accurate information from libraries, hotlines and other sources.
- Ask questions about treatments and services.
- Talk to other families or find a family network organization.
It is important for people who have questions about, or are not satisfied with, the mental health care their children receive to discuss their concerns with the provider, ask for more information and seek help from other sources.
Depression is treatable. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for depressed children. Depression is a real illness that requires professional help. Comprehensive treatment often includes both individual and family therapy. For example, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are forms of individual therapy shown to be effective in treating depression. Treatment may also include the use of antidepressant medication. For help, parents should ask their physician to refer them to a qualified mental health professional, who can diagnose and treat depression in children and teenagers.
(This information has been made available by the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry)
For further information on child depression, please see the following resources: